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Fermentation technology involves the chemical transformation of organic compounds using microorganism containing the required enzymes. In fermentation, the substrate consists of either fermentable sugars or substances such as starch and cellulose, which can be converted into fermentable sugars. Fermentation is brought about by yeast. Yeast is a fungus, which can be grown in media containing nutrients essential for their growth. Yeast can live without oxygen and hence is useful in anaerobic fermentations. The fermentation medium is carbohydrates to which nutrients containing nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur in the form of ammonium salts and vitamin such as biotin has been added.

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